Credit: When using the ARMAS data, please use this credit line: “ARMAS data is openly provided for scientific and operational considerations as a courtesy of Space Environment Technologies.”

Citations: When citing ARMAS data in the literature, please use these citations, as applicable:


  1. Gersey, B. “B.”, Tobiska, W. K., Atwell, W., Bouwer, D., Didkovsky, L., Judge, K., et al. (2020). Beamline and flight comparisons of the ARMAS flight module with the tissue equivalent proportional counter for improving atmospheric radiation monitoring accuracy. Space Weather, 18, e2020SW002599. 10.1029/2020SW002599
  2. Tobiska, W. K., L. Didkovsky, K. Judge, D. Bouwer, S. Wieman, B. Gersey, B. Atwell, and R. Wilkins (2019), ARMAS Flight System for Operational Aerospace Radiation Measurements, 49th International Conference on Environmental Systems, 7-11 July 2019, Boston, Massachusetts, ICES-2019-406.

Radiation background:

  1. Mertens, C.J. and W. K. Tobiska (2020), Space weather radiation effects on high altitude/latitude aircraft, Solar/Heliosphere 5: Space Weather Contemporary Technology Impacts, eds. Coster, AGU Books, in publication.
  2. Tobiska, W.K., M.M. Meier, D, Matthiae, and K. Copeland (2017), Characterizing the Variation in Atmospheric Radiation at Aviation Altitudes, Extreme Events in Geospace, ed., N. Buzulukova, Elsevier, pp. 453–471, ISBN: 9780128127001.
  3. Tobiska, W.K., W. Atwell, P. Beck, E. Benton, K. Copeland, C. Dyer, B. Gersey, I. Getley, A. Hands, M. Holland, S. Hong, J. Hwang, B. Jones, K. Malone, M.M. Meier, C. Mertens, T. Phillips, K. Ryden, N. Schwadron, S.A. Wender, R. Wilkins, and M.A. Xapsos, Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety, Space Weather, 13, 202–210, doi:10.1002/2015SW001169, 2015.
  4. Mertens, C.J., B.T. Kress, M. Wiltberger, W.K. Tobiska, B. Grajewski, and X. Xu, Atmospheric ionizing radiation from galactic and solar cosmic rays, Current topics in ionizing radiation research, M. Nenoi (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0196-3, InTech, 2012.


  1. Tobiska, W.K., L. Didkovsky, K. Judge, S. Wieman, D. Bouwer, J. Bailey, B. Atwell, M. Maskrey, C. Mertens, Y. Zheng, M. Shea, D. Smart, B. Gersey, R. Wilkins, D. Bell, L. Gardner, and R. Fuschino (2018), Analytical representations for characterizing the global aviation radiation environment based on model and measurement databases. Space Weather, 16, 1523–1538. 10.1029/2018SW001843.
  2. Tobiska, W.K., D. Bouwer, D. Smart, M. Shea, J. Bailey, L. Didkovsky, K. Judge, H. Garrett, W. Atwell, B. Gersey, R. Wilkins, D. Rice, R. Schunk, D. Bell, C. Mertens, X. Xu, M. Wiltberger, S. Wiley, E. Teets, B. Jones, S. Hong, and K. Yoon (2016), Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system, Space Weather, 14, 1053–1080, doi:10.1002/2016SW001419.
  3. Mertens, C. J., G.P. Gronoff, R.B. Norman, B.M. Hayes, T.C. Lusby, T. Straume, W.K. Tobiska, A. Hands, K. Ryden, E. Benton, S. Wiley, B. Gersey, R. Wilkins, and X. Xu (2016), Cosmic radiation dose measurements from the RaD-X flight campaign, Space Weather, 14, doi:10.1002/2016SW001407.
  4. Straume, T., C. J. Mertens, T. C. Lusby, B. Gersey, W. K. Tobiska, R. B. Norman, G. P. Gronoff, and A. Hands (2016), Ground-Based Evaluation of Dosimeters for NASA High-Altitude Balloon Flight, Space Weather, 14, doi:10.1002/2016SW001406.
  5. Gersey, B., Wilkins, W. Atwell, W.K. Tobiska, C. Mertens, Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter Microdosimetry Measurements Aboard High-Altitude and Commercial Aircraft, AIAA 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems, 15-19 July 2012, San Diego, AIAA-2012-3636, 2012.
  6. Tobiska, W.K., D. Bouwer, R. Shelley, C. Mertens, B. Gersey, W. Atwell, J. Love, J. Grannon, P. Friberg, V. Eccles, R. Schunk, D. Intriligator, W. Burke, P. Hagan, M. Hesse, and M. Kuznetsova, Demonstration of Operational Real-Time Space Weather Prototypes for Aviation Radiation and Magnetospheric Sub-Storms, AIAA 49th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 4-7 January 2011, Orlando, AIAA-2011-1059, 2011.


  1. Zheng, Y., N. Yu. Ganushkina, P. Jiggens, I. Jun, M. Meier, J. I. Minow, T. P. O’Brien, D. Pitchford, Y. Shprits, W. K. Tobiska, M. A. Xapsos, T. B. Guild, J. E. Mazur, and M. M. Kuznetsova (2019), Space radiation and plasma effects on satellites and aviation: Quantities and metrics for tracking performance of space weather environment models. Space Weather, 17, 1384–1403. 2018SW002042.

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