Current Data

The Current Data page is a table of contents for space weather phenomena provided by SET. It represents the most current data, across entire space weather enterprise, produced by SET's operational systems. To find a specific data type click the relevant tab below or browse through the page. For access to the related ascii data files for each data type please contact us by email at data@spacewx.com

GOES-R

GOES 16 SUVI Composite 195

The GOES SUVI instrument images the Sun at 19.5 nm. This is the iron XII (Fe XII) emission coming from the corona of the Sun with a temperature of around 1,600,000 K. These irradiances (the full-disk integrated emission) are responsible for ionizing and heating atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen in the Earth’s atmosphere. This image is very useful for viewing solar flares. During solar minimum the disk looks uniform with few bright active regions but dark patches called coronal holes. As the sunspot cycle grows, more bright active regions are seen which lie above dark sunspots on the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. The dark patches at the north pole (top), south pole (bottom), and intermittently in the mid-latitudes are from open solar magnetic fields lines, i.e., called coronal holes. The Sun rotates in the image every 27 days from left (East limb) to right (West limb). The sub-Earth point is at the center of the image.


GOES 16 SUVI Cmposite 304

The GOES SUVI instrument images the Sun at 30.4 nm. This is the helium II (He II) emission coming from the chromosphere of the Sun with a temperature of around 80,000 K. These irradiances (the full-disk integrated emission) are responsible for ionizing and heating atomic oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere and is the majority emission contributing to the solar S10 index. Most satellite drag variability in Low Earth Orbit is a result of changes in this emission. During solar minimum the disk looks uniform with few bright active regions. As the sunspot cycle grows, more bright active regions are seen which lie above the dark sunspots on the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. The dark patches at the north (top) and south (bottom) poles are from open solar magnetic fields lines, also called coronal holes. The Sun rotates in the image every 27 days from left (East limb) to right (West limb). The sub-Earth point is at the center of the image.


GOES Proton Flux P2A

GOES Proton Flux P2A


GOES Proton Flux P4

The GOES satellite measured 5-minute averaged integral proton flux indicates the intensity of the solar generated proton environment at geostationary orbit. The ≥10 MeV protons match the NOAA Solar Radiation Storm (S-scale) thresholds (10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000 pfu), based upon values observed or expected on the primary GOES satellite. High-energy particles can reach Earth anywhere from 20 minutes to many hours following the initiation of a solar event. The particle energy spectrum and arrival time seen by satellites varies with the location and nature of the event on the solar disk. Higher fluxes of protons with energies ≥ 10 MeV can affect Single Event Upset rates in spacecraft electronics. In addition, high energy particles can access the polar ionosphere and create an enhanced D-region of ionization which interferes with HF radio communication in polar regions.


GOES Electron Flux E1

The GOES satellite measured 5-minute averaged integral electron flux indicates the intensity of the outer electron radiation belt at geostationary orbit. Measurements are made in two integral flux channels, one channel measuring all electrons with energies greater than 0.8 million electron Volts (MeV) and one channel measuring all electrons with energies greater than 2 MeV. Here we display the differential flux values for 0.1 MeV electrons, which can be an indicator of spacecraft surface charging. Radiation belt electron fluxes vary dramatically over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Abrupt increases and decreases in flux can occur due to changes in the magnetospheric magnetic field and to particle acceleration and loss mechanisms, including the presence of electromagnetic waves.


GOES Electron Flux E6

The GOES satellite measured 5-minute averaged integral electron flux indicates the intensity of the outer electron radiation belt at geostationary orbit. Measurements are made in two integral flux channels, one channel measuring all electrons with energies greater than 0.8 million electron Volts (MeV) and one channel measuring all electrons with energies greater than 2 MeV. Here we display the differential flux values for 0.6 MeV electrons, which can be an indicator of spacecraft deep dielectric charging. Radiation belt electron fluxes vary dramatically over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Abrupt increases and decreases in flux can occur due to changes in the magnetospheric magnetic field and to particle acceleration and loss mechanisms, including the presence of electromagnetic waves.GOES Electron Flux E9

The GOES satellite measured 5-minute averaged integral electron flux indicates the intensity of the outer electron radiation belt at geostationary orbit. Measurements are made in two integral flux channels, one channel measuring all electrons with energies greater than 0.8 million electron Volts (MeV) and one channel measuring all electrons with energies greater than 2 MeV. Here we display the differential flux values for 2.0 MeV electrons, which can be an indicator of spacecraft radiation damage. Radiation belt electron fluxes vary dramatically over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Abrupt increases and decreases in flux can occur due to changes in the magnetospheric magnetic field and to particle acceleration and loss mechanisms, including the presence of electromagnetic waves.

 

GOES particles from SET portal

Photons :Sun




Solar Xray Indices


JB20008 solar indices

SET operationally provides these forecast solar indices for use by the JB2008 model. In addition to the legacy F10 proxy representing both the solar transition region and corona with bremsstrahlung and free-free electron processes, the remaining operational solar indices represent the combined energy from these sources: i) S10 is the 26-34 nm bandpass EUV chromospheric irradiance index; ii) M10 is the 160 nm FUV Schumann-Runge photospheric irradiance proxy; and iii) Y10 is the 121.6 nm Lyman-alpha chromospheric/transition region irradiance convolved with the 0.1–0.8 nm X-ray coronal irradiance. S10 represents the energy for O photoabsorption in the middle thermosphere (>180 km), M10 represents the energy for O2 dissociation in the lower thermo- sphere (~110 km), and Y10 represents the energy for mesosphere and lower thermosphere H2O chemistry (~90 km). F10 captures any remaining energy that is unresolved in atmosphere layers. All units are reported in solar flux units (sfu) of ×10-22 W m-2 Hz-1


"JB2008


Penticton F1-.7 Observed Flux Density


MGII c/w Ratio

Geomagnetic Indices


Kyoto Dst

Geomagnetic storms can be indicated by the Disturbance storm time (Dst) index, which is an indicator of the strength of the magnetospheric ring current system that is created and driven by geomagnetic substorms and storms. As more electrons make their way into the region near geosynchronous orbit from the midnight sector magnetotail, they tend to drift toward the dawn sector, causing a current system to be set up. This current system has a magnetic component and depresses the Earth’s main magnetic field. Thus, measurements of Dst are in units of nT and, for substorms and storms, are typically negative valued. SET’s Anemomilos (“windmill” in Greek) Disturbance storm time (Dst) index is forecast using solar drivers of the magnitude of the flare index as a proxy for the magnitude of the Dst, the location of the flare on the solar disk as an indicator of the geoeffectiveness of the storm, and the integrated energy of the flare index profile as a proxy for the velocity of the incoming magnetic cloud. This method allows a prediction to made for several days out into the future.

Dst stream forecast

Solar coronal mass ejection arrival forecast. SET’s forecast of the arrival of a coronal mass ejection flux rope or magnetic cloud shows the icon Sun at the left (yellow) and the icon Earth (blue) at the right, each from a north pole perspective looking down onto the ecliptic plane. The west limb of the Sun is at the top of the solar icon. The colored open (southward Bz) or closed (northward Bz) dots represent the flux rope at 12-hour intervals and the magnetic field polarity is estimated from the solar cycle configuration of the polar fields. The Sun-Earth line is the dotted line connecting the two icons. Information related to timing, magnitude, and duration are shown in the plot legend at the top of the figure. The bottom colorbar indicates the solar X-ray flare index (Xhf) size where the solar X-ray background values are removed. The filled location on the Sun shows the solar longitude and latitude of the flare event, where the latitude is north (filled) and south (open).

DSCOVR Solar Wind




The DSCOVR satellite solar wind speed at the L1 Lagrangian point (1 million miles toward the Sun in front of the Earth) is shown over the past 6 days. The solar wind speed affects the way in which the solar wind couples with the Earth’s magnetosphere to create geomagnetic storms. Typical background solar wind speeds are in the 350 to 450 km/s range while high speed streams (HSS) from open solar field lines emanating out of solar coronal holes can see double those speeds between 300 to 800 km/s. Large coronal mass ejections will have solar winds speeds that can be even higher such as 1000 to 2000 km/s.

DSCOVR Solar Wind Density at L1

The DSCOVR satellite solar wind density at the L1 Lagrangian point (1 million miles toward the Sun in front of the Earth) is shown over the past 6 days. The solar wind electron density affects the way in which the solar wind couples with the Earth’s magnetosphere to create geomagnetic storms and provides a seed population of particles injected into the Earth’s magnetosphere regions.

DSCOVR Solar Wind Temperature at L1

1 Lagrangian point (1 million miles toward the Sun in front of the Earth) is shown over the past 6 days. The solar wind temperature affects the way in which the solar wind couples with the Earth’s magnetosphere to create geomagnetic storms.

DSCOVR Solar Wind Bz at L1

The DSCOVR satellite solar wind magnetic field (B) z-component directionality (north or south out of the ecliptic plane, N or S) at the L1 Lagrangian point (1 million miles toward the Sun in front of the Earth) is shown over the past 6 days. The solar wind Bz affects the way in which the solar wind couples with the Earth’s magnetosphere to create geomagnetic storms. Bz negative (southward directed) tends to couple much more readily with the Earth’s magnetospheric field lines to generate large geomagnetic storms. Bz positive (northward directed) tends to couple less readily with the Earth’s magnetospheric field lines to generate small or insignificant geomagnetic storms.

Effective Dose Rate

SDO 102W Geosynchronous Charging

NOAA / SWPC

Space Weather Glossary

Link to Glossary

 

This glossary is provided as an updating community service to help define many terms in space weather.

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